Saturday, August 31, 2019

Oral Feeding Readiness Preterm Infants Health And Social Care Essay

What is meant by â€Å" unwritten eating preparedness in preterm babies? † This peculiar construct is frequently elusive, contextual, subjective and really complex when used with the preterm population of babies. It has besides been a subject of involvement for many old ages within the scene of the neonatal intensive attention unit ( NICU ) . The ability of a preterm baby to entirely unwritten provender is non merely a mark of competent unwritten eating accomplishments but is a necessary criterion for discharge preparedness from the NICU ( McGrath & A ; Braescu, 2004 ) . For nurses in the NICU the ability to orally feed a preterm baby is a many-sided undertaking necessitating successful attainment of a battalion of accomplishments: the proficiently to measure preterm baby eating accomplishments, clinical proficiency at preterm baby eating and proficiency in finding unwritten eating preparedness. On the other manus, the ability to orally feed is a complex undertaking for the preterm baby in the NICU every bit good. Questions often arise in the clinical sphere related to unwritten feeding preparedness of the preterm baby including those of physiologic adulthood, motor and province stableness, and the baby ‘s capableness of interactions with the environment and health professionals. All of these factors contribute to the underlying conceptual inquiry: should oral eatings be attempted? In embarking to reply this inquiry, a figure of instruments have been developed over the old ages to mensurate unwritten feeding preparedness of preterm babies in the NICU scene. Most of these instruments refer to the conceptual facet of unwritten feeding preparedness without specific usage of any theory as a footing for formal instrumentality. However, each of these tools was designed to help in supplying a clearer apprehension of the indispensable elements of unwritten feeding preparedness in the preterm baby as they apply to daily eating patterns. By integrating unwritten eating preparedness into NICU nursing pattern, intercessions that are grounds based can back up day-to-day nursing intercessions and will finally ensue in results that support infant good being and preparedness for discharge to place. Description of Instruments The unwritten eating preparedness tools being described were identified by seeking the PubMed, Ovid Medline and CINHAL databases for articles written in English and published between 1980 and 2011. The keywords used for the hunt were unwritten eating, preparedness, preterm, preterm eating measuring, feeding assessment tool and feeding instrument. The footings were used separately and in combinations. Electronic hunts produced three eating tools for preterm newborns related to bottle eating as the primary method of unwritten eating: the Early Feeding Skills Assessment ( EFS ) ( Thoyre, Shaker & A ; Pridham, 2005 ) , the Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale ( NOMAS ) ( Braun & A ; Palmer, 1986 ) , and the Oral Feeding Skills in Preterm Infants ( OFS ) ( Lau & A ; Smith, 2011 ) .The Early Feeding Skills Assessment for Preterm InfantsTheoretical Underpinnings The Early Feeding Skills Assessment ( EFS ) for preterm babies is a checklist for profiling a preterm baby ‘s developmental phase sing specific feeding accomplishments. It has been described as an â€Å" evidence-referenced tool † ( Sheppard & A ; Fletcher, 2007, p. 206 ) for detecting unwritten eatings by chest or bottle. Items on the checklist refer to theoretical facets of unwritten feeding preparedness: unwritten eating preparedness, ability to stay occupied in feeding, ability to organize swallowing and external respiration, ability to form unwritten motor operation, ability to keep physiologic stableness and unwritten eating recovery ( Sheppard & A ; Fletcher, 2007 ) . There is no published information sing a connexion between a peculiar theory and the beginning or design of the EFS. Instrument Data Collection The EFS is a thirty-six point experimental measuring tool that can be used from the â€Å" induction of unwritten feeding through ripening of unwritten eating accomplishment † ( Thoyre et al. , 2005, p. 8 ) . It is divided into three subdivisions: unwritten eating preparedness, unwritten eating accomplishment, and unwritten eating recovery. The EFS is scored based on observation of an full eating with each point holding scaled picks of yes-no, never-occasionally-often, or all-most-some-none. The first subdivision is the unwritten eating preparedness subdivision. This subdivision consists of five points and assesses whether the baby has province and motor control to back up orally feeding. If all replies to the five points are yes, the baby is fed orally. If the replies are non all yes, intercessions to fix for unwritten eating can be recommended and accordingly provided. The following subdivision is the unwritten eating accomplishment subdivision. This subdivision assesses four countries felt to be critical for successful eating: the ability to stay occupied during feeding ( three points ) , the ability to form oral-motor operation ( seven points ) , the ability to organize suck-swallow-breathing ( six points ) , and the ability to keep physiologic stableness ( 11 points ) . The unwritten eating recovery subdivision is three points that are completed five proceedingss after the eating session has ended and evaluates the impact of the eating on the baby ‘s province, motor and physiologic control. The EFS besides provides an country at the terminal of the signifier for feeding forms ( e.g. , type mammilla, length and volume of feeding ) and caregiver feeding schemes ( e.g. , chin support, cheek support ) . The method of hiting is non available in any of the published articles depicting the tool, nevertheless a preparation class for usage of the EFS is offered nationally by the instrument developers. Dependability and Validity Thoyre et Al. ( 2005 ) study that content cogency of the EFS â€Å" has been established with adept neonatal nurses and unwritten eating research workers † ( p. 8 ) and that â€Å" intra- and interrater dependability have been found to be stable and acceptable † ( p. 8 ) . The instrument ‘s developers besides report that prognostic, coincident and concept cogency are presently being tested. To day of the month, no informations sing any of these facets of the EFS has been published. Related Surveies Although this instrument has been available for usage since 2005, no surveies using or measuring the unity of this instrument were located in an electronic hunt of PubMed, Ovid Medline and CINHAL databases.Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment ScaleTheoretical Underpinnings The NOMAS was designed to place and quantify neonatal non-nutritive and alimentary oral-motor sucking forms by professionals that are specifically trained to utilize this instrument as a method of quantifying an baby ‘s oral-motor accomplishments. The theoretical underpinnings are those related to infant sucking accomplishments: most feeding troubles in preterm babies are caused by immature or unequal suck-swallow-breathe coordination and direct appraisal of suction and sup can be described by agencies of assorted non-invasive, experimental steps of physiologic parametric quantities. These theoretical underpinnings are the footing for the undermentioned three premises sing instrument result measurings of the NOMAS: ( 1 ) normal suction forms are displayed by babies who display coordinated suction, sup and breathe mechanisms during alimentary and non-nutritive suction, ( 2 ) a disorganised suction form may be displayed in the presence of an baby ‘s inability to organize su ction, sup and breathe mechanisms, and ( 3 ) a dysfunctional suction form may be displayed by baby ‘s exhibiting unnatural jaw and lingua motions, as is the instance with babies diagnosed with neurologic upsets ( Costa & A ; Schans, 2007 ) . Instrument Data Collection The current NOMAS instrument consists of a 28 point checklist placing features of jaw motion and features of lingua motion which organizes a newborn ‘s oral-motor forms during alimentary sucking into one of three classs: normal, disorganized or dysfunctional. The baby ‘s suction accomplishment is assessed by a trained NOMAS perceiver for two proceedingss during non-nutritive sucking anterior to feeding and during the first five proceedingss of regular eating. The trained NOMAS perceiver does non touch the baby, but simply observes the figure of sucking motions during one sucking explosion and the continuance of intermissions between turns of sucking. Jaw and lingua motions are besides analyzed as a constituent of the checklist. Observed oral-motor forms are marked on the listed behaviours and babies are classified into normal, disorganized or dysfunctional harmonizing to the behaviours that are marked. The hiting method has been revised several times since it was foremost reported by Braun & A ; Palmer in 1985 and badness evaluations for the disorganised and dysfunctional classs were included in the revised version, nevertheless, no numerical marking method is used to day of the month ( Howe, Lin, Fu, Su & A ; Hsieh, 2008 ) . Dependability and Validity In several dependability surveies, inter-rater dependability utilizing Cronbach ‘s i was found to be 0.93-0.97 ( Case-Smith et al. , 1988 & A ; Palmer et al. , 1993 ) . Test-retest dependability was determined by Case-Smith ( 1988 ) to be 0.67 – 0.82 when used in a survey of 26 babies with feeding jobs. Construct and prognostic cogency has been supported by multiple surveies for all classs of the NOMAS ( Braun & A ; Palmer, 1985 ; Case-Smith et al. , 1989 ; Howe et al. , 2007, & A ; Palmer & A ; Heyman, 1999 ) . Related Surveies There are several documented surveies that utilize the NOMAS instrument. The three that will be described here are current surveies that have been published within the past five old ages and are relevant to the usage of NOMAS with the preterm population of babies. In the 2007 survey by Howe, Sheu, Hinojosa, Lin & A ; Holzman, the NOMAS was used to mensurate unwritten motor accomplishments in order to find factors related to bottle-feeding public presentation in preterm babies. A sum of 116 preterm babies were included in the survey and research workers found that babies who need more unwritten support during eatings and those who have disorganized oral-motor accomplishments tend to take lower volumes of eatings orally. In contrast, babies with more feeding experiences are able to take higher unwritten volumes. These findings are of import in the designation of feeding experience and feeding techniques as being built-in constituents of a preterm baby ‘s unwritten eating public presentation. In Howe, Sheu, Hsieh & A ; Hseih ‘s 2007 survey sing the psychometric features of the NOMAS in healthy preterm babies, the writers examined the dependability, cogency and reactivity of the NOMAS in healthy preterm babies as the intents of the survey. The survey consisted of 147 medically stable preterm babies. Feeding public presentations were assessed and documented by an occupational healer trained in the disposal of the NOMAS. The writers concluded that the NOMAS demonstrated acceptable degrees of cogency and reactivity in preterm babies from 32 to 35 hebdomads postmenstrual age ( PMA ) but hapless cogency for babies 36 hebdomads PMA in the normal and disorganised classs. The writers suggested farther proof research in response to the findings of this survey. In Bingham, Ashikaga & A ; Abbasi ‘s survey ( 2010 ) using the NOMAS, 51 preterm babies were evaluated for correlativity of non-nutritive sucking accomplishments with subsequent feeding public presentation. The NOMAS marking was performed by NOMAS-certified healers and NICU nurses within 72 hours of successful induction of unwritten eatings. Findingss were implicative that NOMAS hiting at the induction of unwritten eatings was non significantly associated with the accomplishment of feeding milepost results being measured in the survey including clip from induction of unwritten eatings to clip of sole unwritten eatings.Oral Feeding Skills in Preterm BabiesTheoretical Underpinnings The developers of the OFS tool identify two basic theoretical underpinnings of unwritten eating that health professionals are faced with when turn toing the determination of unwritten feeding preparedness: the ability of the baby to finish the eating safely and the appropriate rate of promotion to sole unwritten eating. They propose that the OFS tool offers an nonsubjective index of an baby ‘s ability to orally feed by combing proficiency of unwritten feeding with minimum weariness and rate of milk transportation as a contemplation of feeding accomplishment ( Lau & A ; Smith, 2011, p. 64 ) . They do non depict a peculiar theory in connexion to the beginning or design of the OFS tool. Instrument Data Collection Data aggregation for the OFS is comparatively simple and no specialised preparation is needed. Caregivers document the prescribed volume of a eating in millilitres, the volume of feeding taken orally at 5 proceedingss into the eating, the full unwritten volume that is taken and the clip in proceedingss that it takes an baby to orally feed in that peculiar eating session. Proficiency ( PRO ) is calculated as the per centum entire volume taken in the first 5 proceedingss divided by the entire prescribed volume. The rate of milk transportation ( RT ) is calculated as the volume in millilitres ( milliliter ) that is taken orally divided by the figure of proceedingss to take this volume. PRO is so used to index existent eating ability when weariness is minimum ( within the first five proceedingss of unwritten eating ) and RT is used as an index of endurance ( being affected by weariness ) . The OFS tool is divided into four degrees runing from degree one to level four. Level one is low pr oficiency and low endurance, degree two is low proficiency and high endurance, degree three is high proficiency and low endurance and degree four is high proficiency and high endurance. A PRO greater than 30 per centum is defined as high proficiency while a PRO less than 30 per centum is defined as low proficiency. An RT greater than one and a half milliliter per minute is defined as a high endurance while an RT less than one and a half milliliter per minute is defined as low endurance. Potential intercessions are recommended for unwritten eating therapy at each accomplishment degree with the end of heightening existent eating accomplishment. Dependability and Validity To day of the month, no information sing dependability or cogency of the OFS has been published. The 2011 survey by the developers did show that OFS degrees had a important positive correlativity with an baby ‘s feeding public presentation and gestational age strata ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) and had a important opposite association with yearss from the start of unwritten eatings until independent unwritten eatings ( P & lt ; 0.002 ) ( Lau & A ; Smith, 2007, p. 68 ) . Related Surveies This instrument was ab initio described in 1997, nevertheless, the prospective survey published by the developers in January 2011 was designed for the intent of utilizing the EFS as an nonsubjective tool for the appraisal of a preterm baby ‘s unwritten eating accomplishments. No other surveies using or measuring the unity of this instrument beyond the initial development were located in an electronic hunt of PubMed, Ovid Medline, and CINHAL databases. DecisionRelevance to Future StudiesEach of the instruments antecedently described has advantages and disadvantages as an instrument for measuring unwritten eating preparedness. Both the EFS and the NOMAS necessitate specialised preparation in order to be able to utilize them as a valid instrument of unwritten eating ability, whereas the OFS is a simple tool that is designed for usage by any caretaker of preterm babies having unwritten eatings. Neither the EFS nor the OFS has been used in any published clinical survey nor do they hold published dependability or cogency grounds. The NOMAS, on the other manus, has been examined more thoroughly and has multiple internal consistence, dependability and cogency surveies to back up its usage. Another concern of all three instruments is that they differ in both the designation of measureable factors that contribute to readiness for unwritten eatings and in factors lending to success at unwritten eatings, doing comparings between these instrum ents hard. One common happening when measuring each of these tools, nevertheless, is the fact that unwritten eating preparedness is a complex construct affecting a battalion of factors for consideration. Instruments to help with the measuring of this construct demand to be consistent with their theoretical underpinnings and construct analyses in order to be able to supply consistent, valid and dependable results that can be farther utilized for future research and farther construct elucidation. Well-designed surveies are needed to measure the cogency and dependability of both the EFS and the OFS as instruments of mensurating unwritten eating ability. Research workers should besides see utilizing one of these instruments in future surveies to prove the feasibleness and effectivity of intercessions that are designed to back up unwritten eating preparedness. Awareness and understanding of indispensable elements of the construct of unwritten feeding preparedness in preterm babies is necessary and w ill supply for farther elucidation of unwritten eating preparedness. It will besides take to greater consistence in the proviso of evidence-based nursing attention during feeding times for preterm babies hospitalized in the NICU.Greatest LearningThis activity was much more complex and involved than I originally thought it would be. I was cognizant of the fact that there were several instruments to mensurate unwritten eating preparedness in preterm babies, but was non cognizant of the changing theoretical underpinnings and by differences between these instruments in really mensurating unwritten eating preparedness and differences in general construct elucidation. I was besides non cognizant of the preparation involved for the usage of some of these instruments, either. The necessary preparation is non merely an added disbursal, but it adds to the trouble in being able to implement their usage in a big NICU scene such as the one I presently work in. We have a staff of 127 staff nurses who routinely orally feed babes as a constituent of clinical nursing attention. It would be really hard, every bit good as dearly-won, to develop every nurse in a sensible sum of clip without even sing turnover rates and the demand to develop new staff every bit good. A simpler instrument such as the OFS would be of greater benefit to nursing staff given current staffing tendencies and nurse to patient ratios at feeding times. I besides now realize that in order for an instrument to be able to sufficiently mensurate a construct, the construct must hold been sufficiently analyzed and the instrument must be valid and dependable as a measuring of the construct at manus every bit good as being simplistic to utilize. If this does non go on, consequences have a much higher chance of being erroneous and so the construct that is being measured merely becomes more ill-defined.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Reducing Aggregate Technical and Commercial Losses in the Power Sector

____________________________________________________________________________ 1.1 Introduction Power Sector is considered to be really of import and precedence sector as it leads to overall development of state. The cost of installing of new bring forthing units is lifting ; hence generated electrical energy has to be utilized carefully and expeditiously. One unit of electrical energy saved is tantamount to two unit ‘s electric energy generated.Ministry of Power, Govt. of India, has launched the Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme ( R-APDRP ) in the XI Five twelvemonth Plan. Power Finance Corporation Limited ( PFCL ) has been designated by GoIas the Nodal Agency for the programme.The programme spans from informations acquisition at distribution degree till monitoring of consequences of stairss taken to supply an IT anchor and strengthening of the Electricity Distribution system across the Country under the coder. The aim of the coder is decrease of AT & A ; C losingss to 15 % in undertaking countries. The plan is divided into two ( 2 ) parts Part-A and Part-B. Part-A will include undertakings for constitution of baseline informations and IT applications like Meter Data Acquisition, Meter Reading, Billing, Collections, GIS, MIS, Energy Audit, New Connection, Disconnection, Customer Care Services, Web self service, etc. to acquire verified baseline AT & A ; C losingss every bit good as SCADA/DMS Implementation. Part-B will include distribution beef uping undertakings. The aim of cut downing Aggregate Technical and Commercial ( AT & A ; C ) losingss in the undertaking country can be achieved by stop uping pilferage points, supply of quality power, faster designation of mistakes & A ; early Restoration of power, pro per metering, strategic arrangement of capacitance Bankss & A ; switches, proper planning and design of distribution web. The existent clip monitoring & A ; control of the distribution system through state-of-the art SCADA/DMS system embracing all distribution Sub-stations & A ; 11 KV web would assist in accomplishing this aim of R-APDRP. For deducing maximal benefits it is indispensable that necessary up-gradation of distribution S/S & A ; 11KV web shall be carried out to run into the SCADA/DMS demands. The augmentation /up-gradation of the distribution web for existent clip supervising & A ; control chiefly requires suited compatibility of circuit ledgeman & A ; switches, arrangement of RMUs and FPIs etc for effectual monitoring & A ; command.This augmentation/up step shall be considered under Part B of R-APDRP strategy. However, sing the growing & A ; related web up-gradation, the full fledged SCADA/DMS shall be capable to run into the present every bit good as future demands of the eligible towns for SCADA/DMS system under Part A of R-APDRP. The SCADA/DMS System will supply Real clip monitoring & A ; control, loss minimization/load reconciliation and considerable betterment in voltage/VAR profiles. It would besides ease proper handling of tonss while burden casting & A ; Restoration, efficient planning of web for future growing by utilizing proved power system planning tools. All package applications & A ; RTUs/FRTUs including system size demands for the same shall be considered in the SCADA/DMS system being procured under. Part – A of R-APDRP. As per present R-APDRP guidelines, SCADA/DMS system will include urban countries towns and metropoliss with population of more than 4, 00,000 & A ; 350MUs one-year input energy or based on any other standards as informed by Nodal Agency from clip to clip. The figure of such possible towns is presently 70 ( 70 ) about. In order to guarantee quality in execution procedure, SCADA/DMS Implementation Agencies ( SIA ) & A ; SCADA/DMS Consultants ( SDC ) have been empanelled by PFC/MOP. PFCL have prepared a theoretical account Request For Proposal ( RFP ) including this volume incorporating theoretical account proficient specification ( MTS ) for SCADA/DMS system. Utility/ State shall utilize this theoretical account proficient specification MTS /RFP to custom-make in line with public-service corporation demands. The customization shall non amount to any divergence, alteration of purpose w.r.t MTS/RFP. However, Utility /state shall inform about the deviations/ alterations made by them w.r.t the MTS/RFP with justification to PFCL/MOP & A ; obtain blessing before ask foring empanelled SIAs to offer. The size of the programme is to the melody of Rs. 500 billion. The programme consists of Part-A ( to the melody of around Rs. 10,000 crore ) covering Information Technology application every bit good as SCADA/DMS Implementation, in the electricity distribution system and Part B ( to the melody of around Rs. 40,000 crore ) covering the System strengthening, Improvement and augmentation of distribution system capacity. Both parts entail planning of steps to be taken under the programme, execution of such steps to be taken and monitoring/evaluation of results/impact of the programme as a whole and of itsvarious constituents across the Country. The focal point of the programme shall be on existent, incontrovertible public presentation in footings of loss decrease. Constitution of dependable and machine-controlled systems for existent clip monitoring & A ; control of urban power distribution web implying 33 kilovolt to 11kV web. Under R-APDRP plan, SCADA/DMS system will cover urban countr ies – towns and metropoliss with population of more than 4, 00,000 & A ; 350MUs one-year input energy as per the present R-APDRP Guidelines of GoI. Towns/areas for which undertakings have been sanctioned in X Plan APDRP shall be considered for the XI Plan merely after either completion or short closing of the earlier canonic undertakings. Undertakings under the strategy shall be taken up in Two Partss. Part-A shall include the undertakings for constitution of baseline informations and IT applications for energy accounting/auditing & A ; IT based consumer service centres and SCADA /DMS Implementation. Part-B shall include regular distribution beef uping undertakings. The activities to be covered under each portion are as follows: Part – A: Preparation of Base-line Data System for the undertaking country covering Consumer Indexing, GIS Mapping, Automatic Metering ( AMR ) on Distribution Transformers and Feeders, and Automatic Data Logging for all Distribution Transformers & A ; Feeders and SCADA / DMS system for large metropoliss merely. It would include Asset Mapping of the full distribution web at and below the 11kVtransformers and include the Distribution Transformers and Feeders, Low Tension lines, poles and other distribution web equipment. It will besides include acceptance of IT applications for metre reading, measure aggregation energy accounting & A ; scrutinizing ; MIS ; redressal of consumer grudges and constitution of IT enabled consumer service Centre etc. Part– B: Renovation, modernisation and strengthening of 11 kilovolts flat Substations, Transformers/Transformer Centre, Re-conductoring of lines at11kV degree and below, Load Bifurcation, Feeder segregation, Load Balancing, Aerial Bunched Conductoring in thickly populated countries, HVDS, installing of capacitance Bankss and nomadic service Centre etc. In exceeding instances, where sub-transmission system is weak, beef uping at 33 kilovolt or 66 kilovolt degrees may besides be considered. 1.2Existing System Utility shall include compose up about their existing geographical inside informations ( dad ( 2001 nose count ) , one-year energy in MUs, sqkm, administration apparatus, hierarchy, no. of substations, DT, RMU, electrical web etc of the undertaking country. Utility shall supply inside informations electrical system considered /committed under portion B of R-APDRP strategy for enabling SCADA/DMS execution. Utility shall besides name all bing substructure / bequest systems viz SCADA/DMS, RTU, FRTU, MFTs, IT system under R-APDRP viz. charge, client attention, GIS etc that are required to be integrated with this system. Utility shall supply inside informations of Existing Legacy systems SCADA/DMS, RTU/FRTU, IT system under R-APDRP for integrating including protocol execution profiles, interface inside informations etc. Utility shall give constellation diagram & A ; proficient write up of IT data Centre, client attention Centre DR Centre, bomber div, other offices under R-APDRP. Utility s hall supply inside informations electrical system considered committed under portion B of R-APDRP strategy for enabling SCADA/DMS execution. Utility shall advert inside informations of bing communicating, power supply, edifice substructure for SCADA/DMS system Utility shall guarantee the informations mentioned above is true & A ; harmonizing to approved DPR for the undertaking country. Fig-1 Architecture of SCADA Control centre 1.3 Generic system architecture The purpose of this specification is to set up ( I ) SCADA/DMS System along with RTUs/FRTUs ( I ) Associated Auxiliary Power Supply System ( three ) Communication System ( four ) integrating with IT system under R-APDRP or any bequest system. The functional inside informations are given in several chapters of the specification. 1.4 CASE STUDY SCADA has been developing a concern instance before the effort of Automation of the Distribution system are discussed here. An effort is made to demo how incremental and alterations in the system could convey in big betterments in footings of response clip of the Network Studies for Primary and Secondary distribution Network at 33/11 KV COMPLEX Sub-staion, near the Network Shakti bhavan Jabalpur, under the Poorv Kshetra Vidyut Vitran Company ( MPPKVVCL ) and I was associated with this survey Following stairss are covered in the instance survey ;Monitoring the power system.Making accommodations and keeping the system so that it can be used faithfully, expeditiously, and safelyRepairing the system every bit rapidly as possible in response to incidents such as equipment mistakesTracking and keeping system dependability informations System planning and enlargement to function new clients.Decision summarises the result of this survey. Fig 2 Sub-Station Automation in SCADAEquipmentExisting After Part-B execution33/11 kv sub-station3733 kilovolts feeder4033/11KV Power Transformer5811 Kv feeder14511 kilovolt shunt Capacitor211 kilovolt Bus coupling16Tabel -1.1Sub-Station Automation in SCADA Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW __________________________________________________________________ 2.1 Review 1 Research paper on — Communication Protocols in Substation Automation and SCADA Art Review, -by Arash Shoarinejad, ( System Engineer GE Energy Network Reliability Products and Services-Canada. ) This paper presents an overview of T Protocols as a important portion of the system are explored in deepness. In add-on, normally used protocols and criterions are mentioned briefly IEC 61850 and UCA have assuring advantages over other protocols and will greatly alter SCADA systems today The protocols determine the effectivity of a SCADA system. Therefore, many protocols have been produced over the old ages to suit this demand. IEC 61850 with its self-description and security sweetenings has the most promising mentality in the protocol hereafter. It is a work-in-progress which should finally rule the electrical industry. 2.2 Review 2 Compartmentalization of Protocols in SCADA Communication: by- Dong-joo Kang and Rosslin John.Hongik University, Korea Department of Multimedia Engineering, Hannam University Ojeong-dong, Daeduk-gu, Daejeon, KoreaInternational Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Volume 8, July, 2009 mentioned In communicating, protocols are needed to be implemented to avoid some jobs. In the current province of SCADA communicating, two protocols are widely used, the T101 or IEC 60870-5-101 ( IEC101 ) and the DNP3 ( Distributed Network Protocol ) . In this paper, we present each protocol and discourse the specifications of T101 and DNP3. This can assist SCADA operators to choose which protocol is suited for the operations of their SCADA systems. IEC 60870-5-101/104 and DNP3 have fundamentally the same functionality, As discussed, DNP3 is popular in America. Since DNP3 and T101 are unfastened Standards, SCADA operators should supervise the development, and do parts when appropriate, to T101 and D NP3. They should besides prosecute the developers to include security characteristics on the protocols. SCADA communicating. In the hereafter we are be aftering to analyze and include other SCADA protocols. 2.3 Review 3 Review of Remote Terminal Unit ( RTU ) and Gateways for Digital Oilfield delpoyments ( By:Ayobami Ogunrinde SPDC Nigeria) Writer has described Francis Enejo Idachaba Department of Electrical and Information Engineering Covenant University Ota. Ogun province Nigeria ( SPDC Nigeria( IJACSA ) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 8, 2012The increasing diminution in easy oil has led to an increasing demand for the optimisation of oil and gas procedures. Digital oilfields utilize distant operations to accomplish these optimisation ends and the distant telemetry unit and gateways are really critical in the realisation of this aim. This paper presents a reappraisal of the RTUs and gateways utilized in digital oilfield architectures. It presents a reappraisal of the architecture, their functionality and choice standards. It besides provides a comparing of the specifications of some popular RTUs. 2.4 Review 4 Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks ( By- Mohamed Najeh Lakhoua and Mohamed Kamel Jbira ) Laboratory of Analysis and Command of Systems ( LACS ) , National Engineering School of BP 37, Le Belvedere 1002, Tunisia ( IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 2, No 2, March 2012 ) Writer has described SCADA ( Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ) systems, to show the undertaking direction stages of SCADA for existent clip execution. Most control actions are performed automatically by RTUs. Host control maps are normally restricted to basic overruling or supervisory degree intercession A proposed computing machine based power distribution mechanization system is so discussed. Finally, some undertakings SCADA system execution in electrical companies over the universe is briefly presentedusing computing machine based system for sustainable development in the mechanization of the power distribution we b to better the customers’ service and the dependability of the web. 2.5 Review 5 Design and Implementation of SCADA System Based Power Distribution for Primary Substation ( Control System ) ( By- Khin Thu Zar Win 1, Hla Myo TunDepartment of Electronic Engineering, Mandalay Technological University Mandalay, MyanmarInternational Journal of Electronics and Computer Science EngineeringThey are automated control system, interfacing units, monitoring system and networking system. The automated control system is emphasised in this research. This system can be accomplished by utilizing PLC ladder diagram. This automated distribution system is analyzed to develop a secure, reliabe and convenient direction tool which can utilize distant terminal units ( RTUs ) . This system is efficient and dependable for conventional electrical distribution system in Myanmar by utilizing SCADA based engineering. proposed a theoretical account that illuminates the classs of informations, functionality, and inter dependences present in a SCADA system. The theoretical account serves as a foundation for farther research on how to outdo apply proficient security controls to SCADA systems in a manner that is consistent with the operation and mission of that system. SCADA system is one of the most of import bequest systems of the smart grid systems. PLC based control system to implement the SCADA system for Power Distribution system has been developed. 3.6:: Review-6 Working stages of SCADA system for power distribustion webs By-Shalini, Sunil Kumar J, Birtukan Teshome, Samrawit Bitewlgn Muluneh, Bitseat Tadesse Aragaw Assistant professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Adi para sakthi College of Engineering, Tamilnadu, India International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation EngineeringVol. 2, Issue 5, May 2013Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ) systems, to show the undertaking direction stages of SCADA for existent clip execution, and so to demo the demand of the mechanization for Power Distribution Companies ( PDC ) on their distribution webs and the importance of utilizing computing machine based system towards sustainable development of their services. Most control actions are performed automatically by RTUs. Host control maps are normally restricted to basic coveriding or supervisory degree intercession A proposed computing machine based power distribution mechanization system is so discussed we proved the importance on utilizing computing machine based system for sustainable development in the mechanization of the power distribution web to better the clients ‘ service and the dependability of the web. Besides the paper outlines the general constructs and needed equipments for the mechanization of such power webs. Some undertakings of SCADA system execution in electrical companies over the universe have been presented.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Charles Dickens

Dickens is using figures of speech to make pictures in the readers head and he is therefore helping people imagine the things he is telling about. One would say that Dickens is using metaphors to put a picture on his story and to make everyone feels how awful and terrible Coketown is. â€Å"Coketown was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but, as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage. He also uses the same word again and again to make his negative impression of the factory clear. â€Å"It contained several large streets all very like one another, and many small streets still more like one another, inhabited by people equally like one another (†¦)†. After reading the story you almost smell the smoke and see the clouds of smoke in front of you. â€Å"It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled. When you have read that description of the smoke you can feel it everywhere around you like a snake sneaking around because of the metaphor Dickens is making. Another metaphor you can find is when Dickens has to describe the steam-engine. He does that by using a huge animal like an elephant to make people imagine how enormous the engine is. â€Å"(†¦) and where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously up and down, like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness† Finally you can conclude that Dickens uses a lot of metaphors and figures of speech to make the reader fells how it is being in Coketown.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

TEXTBOOK-Brinkley World War II chapters 25-26 Essay

TEXTBOOK-Brinkley World War II chapters 25-26 - Essay Example Among these invasions were; the military attacks on Poland by the Germans, the attack of China by the Japanese military. These invasions were majorly as a result of the undesirable decisions that were made by dictatorial leadership in Japan and Germany. For a period of two years, the United States took a neutral position in the ongoing global military conflicts that majorly occurred among Japan, Italy as well as the Germans. During this period the government of the United States of America under the guidance of the then President Franklin Roosevelt signed a program that would guide it to supply military weapons to the Free France, Britain, Russia (Soviet Union) and Italy which were its allies (Brinkley 692). The program was known as the Land Lease and it was implemented one and a half a year after the beginning of the Second World War. During this period, the United States of America also supplied other forms of aid to these nations, for instance; military personnel to take the position of the British forces that invaded Iceland. The first reason that led to the engagement of the United States of America in the world war two was the action taken by the Japanese military to advance in to China and the French Indochina. This angered the United States, Netherlands and the Great Britain which decided to cut off the supply of oil products to the Japanese military. This led to the halt of most of Japanese military weapons; however, Japan remained adamant and even suggested that they were ready for a war with the United States of America, an action that created tension between US and Japan (Brinkley 693). After Japan declared that it was ready for a war with the United States, it went ahead a carried an invasion on the United States’ navy that was stationed at Pearl Harbor. This attack was planned by the Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto who believed that the most effective way to defeat the powerful United States Military forces

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Analysis of Ethics in the 21st Century Coursework - 1

Analysis of Ethics in the 21st Century - Coursework Example The conference held by UNESCO between September 21 and September 22, 2001, produced a well-known report on ethics (UNESCO, 2001). Ethical behavior entails sincerity, trustfulness in transactions, accountability, and responsibility in all dealings. Ethical behavior should be fair and unprejudiced in every relationship as well as gentle and compassionate in every situation. These rules guiding ethical presentations are powerful and straightforward. As an individual, one should adhere to these simple rules, and should not be discouraged or change views owing to external pressure. Ethical management necessitates one to choose to do that which is right in the threshold of ethical norms in the society. These norms entail empathy, care, and responsibility towards others one oneself. There are several issues that should be emphasized in order to remain loyal to one’s ethical principles and responsibilities. These include honesty, diversity, integrity, and access (Zaidi, 2012). Today’s world attributes the cause of the increased ethical quagmires to technological and scientific advancements that dominate the modern human life. Human beings respond to ethical issues with the assistance of technology. One should cite references from the conventional wisdom in order to arrive at ethical solutions of problems at hand. There are mainly two types of ethics related to globalization. The first ethic is based on the sovereignty of states and the power structure while the second one is based on the responsibilities of the liberal market (Wilkins, 2009). Globalization in the 21st century has led to the emergence of harmony, and, thus, increased interactions among people.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Case study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 80

Case Study Example To determine the effectiveness of the partnership, customers need to be involved in the process. The research should be conducted to find out how the customers receive this new partnership. The research should look into how the changes in service delivery have been received by the customers. For example with, the partnership the airline will only be making one stop instead of two across Europe. This should also be looked at in terms of operational cost effectiveness. If the partnership is effective in terms of operational costs incurred by Qantas, then it should be sustained to help in bringing back Qantas to international profitability. The research should also include the dynamics involved in the aircraft operations industry. With a good service delivery as a result of this partnership, the Qantas Company can get back to international profit making. The most important thing is that if the customers accept the new services, they will purchase and recommend them to their friends (Gun n,

Contract Law As the basis of Business Law Essay

Contract Law As the basis of Business Law - Essay Example law has made exceptions in the acceptance of an offer. Acceptance is the words, writing or conduct of the offeree that signifies consent to the agreement proposed by the offeror. When we view The Sale of Goods Act 1979 Part II S4-How a Contract is Made- and s (1), the statute states the spectrum of contract formulation. Additionally, we find the principle of acceptance by conduct when we view Brogden v. Metropolitan Railway Co. [1877] 2 App Cas 666. Adam and Mark entered into a simple contract, which can be oral, written or both. Simple contracts can be held valid in court. Particularly in a business transaction; the court makes the presumption that the parties did have the intent to become legally bound. Of course the presumption can be disputed by either party, however the disputed party must proved to the court that his intent was not to be legally bound. Failure to convince the court, the court will then decide the case by means of the relevant Presumption. I would advise Adam that he has in fact created a binding contract with Mark. We find auxiliary conversations in Rose v. Crompton Bros. (1925). concerning the talk of not having a written and signed contract was of itself a recognizable legally bindingagreement. The court concluded that contracts had been created, and the defendant in3 failing to execute them, were in breach of contract.... From this research, it is clear components 1-4 were inherent of the agreement and points 5-6 of the component list were not evident. Moreover, there was a legitimate offer made by Adam to Mark, to which they subsequently agreed verbally on price and terms of the contract. Albeit the communication of offer and acceptance were made verbally on the phone; the law has made exceptions in the acceptance of an offer. Acceptance is the words, writing or conduct of the offeree that signifies consent to the agreement proposed by the offeror. When we view The Sale of Goods Act 1979 Part II S4-How a Contract is Made- and s (1), the statute states the spectrum of contract formulation. Adam and Mark entered into a simple contract, which can be oral, written or both. Simple contracts can be held valid in court. Particularly in a business transaction; the court makes the presumption that the parties did have the intent to become legally bound. In conclusion, of course, the presumption can be dispute d by either party, however, the disputed party must prove to the court that his intent was not to be legally bound. Failure to convince the court, the court will then decide the case by means of the relevant Presumption. In S (4) s (a) of the Unfair Contract Terms Act of 1977 states that only to business liability, that is liability for breach of obligations of duties arising from things done or to be done by a person in the course of a business (whether his own business or another’s).

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Saudi Arabia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Saudi Arabia - Research Paper Example government has used the oil wealth of the country for the benefit of its people and it has put a lot of investment not only in infrastructure but also in education (Khatib, 2011). In fact, it can be said that some of the infrastructure in Saudi Arabia is better developed than that in the United States. The cities of this country are also very well planned and built and these are designed in very modern architecture. It is actually a breathtaking site when one approaches a Saudi Arabian city from a distance; it is truly an image of a beautiful oasis in the desert. This country has a very extensive social welfare system that caters for all its citizens and one could dare argue that the Saudi Arabian social welfare system actually functions better than the one in the United States (Wiley, 1999). Many in the United States believe that since Saudi Arabia is a traditionalist society, it does not have the necessary development to be in the modern world. The American image of Saudi Arabia is one of nomadic Arab tribesmen moving from place to place in the desert with nothing better to do than breed religious fanatics (Kamran, 2000). This image of Saudi Arabia is a very bad stereotype of the people of this state because most of the population of this country stopped their nomadic lifestyle more than half a century ago and in fact, many today live in the urban areas. The people of Saudi Arabia have adopted many of the ways of the Western world and this include the use of cars to travel instead of camels, many wear Western clothing (especially the men), and most of all, they live in houses which have been built in the modern style. The popular opinion in the United States is that Saudi Arabia is an extremely fanatical society when it comes to religion (Harris, 2003). This image only applies to a few of the people in this society because the majorities are surprisingly very liberal in matters concerning religion. Moreover, they only appear to be fanatical because of their

Saturday, August 24, 2019

A reflection paper on a book chapter Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

A reflection on a book chapter - Research Paper Example The traditional approach of making comparison in relation to politics employed speculative and normative tools, with Aristotle leading in that pursuit. This comparison made up the pre-modern comparative politics. While the specific start of modernity remains a diverse debate, comparative politics in the modern times dates back to the emergence of various social science disciplines like sociology and political science (Caramani, 2008; Ch.1). Following this, political science is regarded as a young professional practice due to the fact that modernity is associated with the 21st Century. On the other hand, post-modernism is seemingly an upgrade of classical modernity. In this case, political comparisons are systematic and clearly organized, thus the argument that post-modernism is a stage within the process of modernity. This whole pursuit cannot fail to importantly account for political influence across the identified three periods prior to modernity. Contributions towards comparative politics are diverse and dynamic. History has it that many historians and modernists have the shaped comparative politics over time. The highlighted individuals in Chapter One; The Evolution of Comparative Politics are just but a few who have significantly contributed towards the evaluation and assessment of comparative politics throughout pre-modern, modern and post-modern times (Caramani, 2008; Ch.1). Although political undertakings are one of the most volatile practices in the contemporary world, the ideas, concepts and theories aired in the chapter are still relevant. The contemporary times in political context can be said to be modern in nature and paving way to post-modernism. Systematic comparisons of political aspects are evident today, with key players in the political field drawing relevant political concepts from political experts of the past. Therefore, the applicability of political comparisons in current times remains a significant

Friday, August 23, 2019

The Development and Acceptance of Labor Arbitration Essay

The Development and Acceptance of Labor Arbitration - Essay Example The regulations set in this case do not allow for concessions, therefore it sets clear guidelines to ensure that the bargain is done in good faith and to the benefit of both parties. Arbitration process involves the appointment of a third neutral party (an Arbiter) who will be charged with the duty of holding formal and informal hearings concerning the differences. The Arbiter will then from the facts drawn from the hearings make a conclusion that binds the two warring factions. His decision must be respected as it is enforceable by the law (Coleman, 1997, pp.36-38). This research paper will look into the historical context of the development and acceptance of the arbitration process in the labor field, particularly during the period and prior to WW II and through the war. The paper will also look at one significant case (Morse's Leadership) which resulted into a great impact on the management of labor relations in the past. Arbitration is as old as humanity and has been used in the world over to settle disputes between people and even among nations at war. This paper will zero in on industrial labor arbitration between employers and employees prior and during World War Two. The concept of arbitration was used to prevent the differences between the parties from escalating into chaos and turning tragic due to workers' strikes. The concept became a vital requirement in the 20th Century with the rapid industrialization and formation of labor unions (Hinchcliff, 1991, p.231). In the United States, it started in1935 with the passage of NLR (National Labor Relations) Act and proceeded into and during the WWII. President Roosevelt Franklin saw the need to help iron out the differences in industries that produced steel and other war materials so that the ensuing labor differences may not escalate and lead to shortage war paraphernalia (Hinchcliff, 1991, p.251). Far much more than the World War One, the World Wa r Two involved aggressive commitment of all nations in the globe. The whole human resources as well as the economic resources were directed to combat the vice. Both combatants and the non-combatants were affected and the expansion of the battle field to cover the enemies' boarders dealt a big blow to the world economy. The ability of a country to survive the war was therefore determined by its capacity to handle industrial and personnel requirement during the Great War. These two sectors which were already strained the war only aggravated the situation. There was a need to keep the human capital under control and at the same time produce enough to run the demands of the war. At its infancy, the law was never at all friendly with arbitration of any form. It was viewed by many as a means of overshadowing and usurpation of the judiciary. The courts were very hostile with it establishment. Their view was that the system was geared to drive them from the office and be rendered jobless through complete ousting of the jurisdiction process (McKelvey, 1957, p.14). To counter the new development, the courts declined to order specific performances of an executor for arbitration and also refused to allow for anything over the nominal damages for a breach of an

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Great Catastrophe of Barings Essay Example for Free

The Great Catastrophe of Barings Essay Introduction In 1995, Barings Bank, the first merchant bank in the world met its downfall due to the Singapore International Monetary Exchange or SIMEXs act of a rogue trader. The reason behind the collapse of the Barings Bank lies under the failure of COSO (Committee on Sponsoring Organizations) Internal Control Integrated Framework application in the company in terms of: environment control, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication monitoring. The person who is behind COSO Framework is Nick Leeson. However, the same person violated the said framework without the knowledge of the bank that led to the downfall of the merchant bank.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper aims to discuss the causes of the collapse of Barings Bank. Specifically, it also intends examine why the bank failed to apply proper integration of COSO and how Nick Leeson contributed to the downfall of Barings. Control Environment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In every company, control environment is important in order to give knowledge to the employees and increase their environmental awareness. This provides employees with the necessary discipline in order to incorporate other internal control components to all business operations in the company.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When Baring was on its first level of establishing its figure in SIMEX, Simon, who happened to be the supervisor of Nick Leesson, wanted to hire green traders. This means that in order to save money to be given out to employees, the company will only be accepting fresh graduates who do not demand high salaries. This is a great risk in the control environment that Barings took. SIMEX was internationally recognized financial institution which was ruled by highly competitive and knowledgeable traders. Thus, hiring ignorant traders who are not accustomed to the operations of SIMEX was a wrong move for Barings.   In addition, the responsibility of hiring traders should go under the company’s human resource and not with Nick Leeson. Once a trader is accepted for the job, the company should rigorously train him or her, provide him or her with the right resources, and teach him orher the necessary skills in trading.   Traders should not be brought to the trading floor until they fully master the trading system and procedures. The management philosophy of Barings as a company also appeared to be delinquent since the start of its operations. Simon already warned Leeson that the former was a bottom-line kind of person. Simon was someone who prioritized profitability over quality. For Leeson, loss and mistakes should be avoided at all costs, while maximizing profit. He did not care what steps should be taken in order for the company to earn money. The increase in profit was the only thing in his mind. In this situation, the delinquency philosophy of management was adopted. As per Simon’s instructions, Leeson and the other traders were obliged to always seek the most profitable option. Since they are pressured to do so, if a trader was not able to do his job well, they need to cover it up and find ways to settle the problem immediately in order to maintain the company’s reputation. The lack of human resource policies and procedures can be seen in the case of Kim, one of the traders. She was tasked to sell securities. However, she was not properly trained as a trader. Thus, she got confused about the deal and ended up buying security instead of selling. This mistake which is part of the 1st Barings liquidation can be avoided if only the company was able to check the background of Kim before hiring her. Leeson was not the only person who was pressurized by Simon. The Head of Barings Financial Products Ron Baker was also tasked by Simon to do things in order for them to receive bonuses. Going back to the case of Leeson, aside from work pressure, he was also going through some personal problems. His father-in-law had just died and he had lost an unborn child due to miscarriage. Because of the said incidents, his wife, Lisa, asked Leeson to resign from his job in Barings. She thought that her husband has been overworking for the company while he was not well-compensated. When he informed his supervisors that he was resigning, they suddenly gave him a special treatment. The company pampered him and gave him a special pass to trade for SIMEX when he was in London. He was also given the privilege to name his price when it came to bonuses and rewards. Although the employee retention strategy that the company used appears attractive, it had negative effects on Leeson. Providing this kind of privilege negatively affected his personality and his work performance. It caused him to become overconfident which led to insubordination as he tried to overpower his superiors. If only Simon or Ron had quickly discovered this transition in Leesons performance, they could have stopped him immediately from becoming a thief or an inefficient worker. Risk Assessment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Risk assessment is the companys ability to control the costs of materials occurring in the company. It also identifies the organization’s risks, and analyzes the potential and likelihood of costs. This is also important in order to assess that benefits should always be higher over costs.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the case of Barings, the companys board management was not able to evaluate properly the risks of hiring new personnel in this new line of business. At that time, Barings was on the peak of expanding businesses all over the world. Because of his amazing performance in Jakarta where he was able to solve bonds problem, most of the responsibilities were assigned to Leeson. He was given a lot of power being the manager of the trading floor and the settlement office. He gained authority in giving permission to all transactions and activities involving the trading market. Giving him much authority was a grave mistake as it placed the company at risk. He easily manipulated the accounting system which was supposed to be for trading purposes only. There was a time when Leeson authorized trading floor transactions without the banks approval. Although there were auditors who examined incoming and outgoing transactions, they were easily bribed and manipulated by Leeson. He was also accountable for hiring traders who were not skilled and trained. Control Activities   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Control activities focus on safeguarding the assets of the company. This involves segregating the duties of employees, authorizing transactions, documentation and checking incoming and outgoing deals.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There were control deficiencies in the newly put up Barings in Singapore. However, it was raised accordingly on the management’s table. Leesons case was about the missing 7.78 billion yen which was demanded by the external auditor for him to explain where such huge amount went to. The auditor required Leeson to present 3 valid documents which can prove that the money was not missing and was used properly. Due to the lack of internal control within the company, Leeson was able to produce the documents immediately. Although the management was already notified, there was no investigation conducted to see more supporting evidence where such materials came from. There were no independent checks made by the higher management to ensure that the internal controls were implemented.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Responsibilities were also not properly segregated in Barings. Leeson was the man responsible for both the trading floor and the settlement office, both risk-taking and reconciliation activities. In addition, there were no internal controls that can prevent Leeson from conducting certain control procedures. Since he had the custody of the transactions on the trading floor, he was also the one who authorized the transactions between Barings’ clients and SIMEX. At the same time, he also had the power to determine which authorized entries would be recorded into the journal and what reconciliation was supposed to be made at the end of the month. If there was a higher management responsible for controlling activities in the company, the company could easily detect the activities of Leeson which the company would never authorize Leeson to do. The control activities that were established in Barings were not structured and conducted properly. There were plenty of loopholes that could be taken advantage of. Information and Communication   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Financial reports are vital materials in every company. In proccessing financial reports, having an established information and communication procedure is very important. This procedure enables the employees to understand their responsibilities in making company financial reports. This also involves the accounting system which records, processes, and summarizes the transactions concerning the companys assets and liabilities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lack of information and communication can be seen in the case of Barings. The company was only looking forward to the end of the month period where they gain profits. It did not seek to understand how and why the company achieved such profits; it only sought profitability and less accountability. Barings financial reports lacked accuracy. Thus, Leeson was able to do fraudulent activities while exploiting the companys resources. Even though Simon was curious about the missing 7.78 billion yen, he just demander for a brief report and did not ask for a more extensive investigation concerning the money.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Barings accounting system was also horrible as it was not properly controlled. Because of this, Leeson was able to manipulate every amount of transactions that were entered in the system. The financial statements that were given to the higher management were altered by Leeson first before they were presented to the board of entity. Meanwhile, Simon may be the main reason why Leeson turned out to be like that. He should be the one responsible in monitoring and supervising Leeson. However, he preferred to be preoccupied with the results—whether the company made a huge profit or not. Monitoring   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Company activities should undergo monitoring process in order to fully asses the quality and performance over time. This can be evaluated by internal auditors through financial reports, Continual management review of exception and operation reports, an auditing per period basis and a Regulator’s suggestions for improvement.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Politics is considerably present in Barings organizational structure. Improper support from the board members or a senior executive is given to the internal audit department. The missing 7.78 billion yen was not sensationalized and the news subsided easily without further investigation. Leeson easily made ways to make that 7.78 billion yen case vanished into thin air. The quality of Leesons work was not properly monitored. The senior executives were easily confined on Leesons explanation rather than going through the reports that were submitted.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On the other hand, the audit personnel that were sent to audit Nick’s work did not possess the appropriate level of expertise. Nick was at first given a very strict and competent auditor but due to lack of support from the board of members, she was later called back to London due to some political issues and two rookies were sent to audit Nick.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Too much trust on Leeson that lead to the downfall of Baring lies on his managers accountability and the internal audit as well. Simon was not able to focus attention on Leesons performance like for instance when one of Leeson’s traders was making a mistake; and both Ron and Tony, the Senior Settlement Clerk from London, was not able to monitor Nick’s works properly. Tony was only ferreting around Nick’s office for about a month and found nothing. There was a total mess in Barings’ management reviews; there was literally no monitoring on Nick’s doings. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are warnings given to the management but they refuse to accept the fact behind it. Profitability blinded them so much believing that it measure success. Since Barings is a big corporation, segregation of responsibilities should be given properly and at the same time employee should understand true responsibility and discipline. Proper training should be given to newly hired individuals so that they will not be lost in their filed of work. There are problems that can be easily solved because of signs along the way but the management chose to ignore it and carry on with operations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Too much slacking in the internal control was present in Barings. Leeson was able to perform nasty activities and he has vast opportunities that made him loss his integrity. He relied too much on Simons demand of gaining profit every end of the month. His mind is focused on this goal that he made dishonest ways of achieving it. He made things beyond his control even manipulating transactions and financial reports. Too much greed led to Barings bankruptcy and his imprisonment. With the additional pressure and problems that he was facing from both his marital and company side, as a regular human being, it was just a matter of time before he would crack open.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Taking immediate actions could cut Barings losses. Barings should be able to overcome this financial shock, only if the board of entity and higher management had responded spontaneously to the problems that they were facing. Everyone was surprised to know that Leeson who was a well trusted employee counter attack them by his power. Devising a solution immediately can be done to counter the companys loss. Securities should be prioritized to avoid another kind of scenario like Barings downfall. The case of Barings teaches the importance of internal controls in every   company’s success. Right management and good supervision is needed in every company. Dedicated and honest employees are needed to lead the company and do managerial decisions that results in a win-win situation. Better internal controls are needed to fully analyze company transactions. A lesson well learned from Barings that will avoid future company losses in the future.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Coming of Age Essay Example for Free

Coming of Age Essay There have always been challenges that a young adolescent must make to become an adult. Whether it was one hundred years ago, or today in this day and age, the challenges are ever so present. Unfortunately, the challenges faced back then were far more harsh and difficult for the young adults compared to the present. They lacked the technology, resources, and knowledge we now possess today. Most jobs one hundred years ago had to be physically done by people, not machines, which the 21st century seems to love. Although times are now different in the sense of materials and knowledge, the society and traditional structure of becoming an â€Å"adult† still stands; you get a job, you get married – you are an adult. There are plenty more things that need to be done and prepared for before even entering the work world, let alone becoming an adult. One hundred years ago, someone my age would have already been working on a farm or in a warehouse with production of some sort. They might be already married with a baby on the way and one already born. Life was very out of the ordinary compared to what we are accustomed to today. A young person was considered an adult at a very early age, typically because he/she started working very young to provide for a family. Life expectancy one hundred years ago, if you survived birth without any antibiotics, was not very long. For women it was fifty-six and men, fifty-two. Due to the short-lived lives of parents, children had no choice but to learn how to fend for themselves in this wild world we call life. Almost all of these jobs, lacking any requirement for education, were not the safest, cleanest, or best paying jobs. Not everyone went straight to work; some had the luxury of going to school to further their education so that they may obtain a good, high paying job. Those who were lucky enough to have the money to pay for an education are the ones who set the high demand for education in the world today. Only the children of the wealthy were educated, and they became wealthy as well. That was the mind set, which led to current day policy. Everyone goes to school. There are some people that go straight to work after high school. Similar to one hundred years ago, the jobs they obtain typically are not the highest paying jobs that require less education, typically are labor union jobs or â€Å"off the books† working. In this country, you need an education if you want to work anywhere, even at McDonalds. Education has become such a big part of the world today.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Comparison of different modulation technique

Comparison of different modulation technique 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Modulation is the process of varying one waveform in relation to another waveform. In telecommunications, modulation is used to convey a message, or a musician may modulate the tone from a musical instrument by varying its volume, timing and pitch. Often a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal to convey a lower frequency signal. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude (volume), its phase (timing) and its frequency (pitch), all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the modulated signal. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a demodulator (sometimes detector or demod). 1.2 TWO TYPES OF MODULATION A) Analog modulation B) Digital modulation Here we discuss analog modulation techniques. 2. AMPLITUDE MODULATION Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent. For example, changes in the signal strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker, or to specify the light intensity of television pixels. (Contrast this with frequency modulation, also commonly used for sound transmissions, in which the frequency is varied; and phase modulation, often used in remote controls, in which the phase is varied). 2.1 TYPES OF AMPLITUDE MODULATION As originally developed for the electric telephone, amplitude modulation was used to add audio information to the low-powered direct current flowing from a telephone transmitter to a receiver. As a simplified explanation, at the transmitting end, a telephone microphone was used to vary the strength of the transmitted current, according to the frequency and loudness of the sounds received. Then, at the receiving end of the telephone line, the transmitted electrical current affected an electromagnet, which strengthened and weakened in response to the strength of the current. In turn, the electromagnet produced vibrations in the receiver diaphragm, thus closely reproducing the frequency and loudness of the sounds originally heard at the transmitter. In contrast to the telephone, in radio communication what is modulated is a continuous wave radio signal (carrier wave) produced by a radio transmitter. In its basic form, amplitude modulation produces a signal with power concentrated at the carrier frequency and in two adjacent sidebands. This process is known as heterodyning. Each sideband is equal in bandwidth to that of the modulating signal and is a mirror image of the other. Amplitude modulation that results in two sidebands and a carrier is often called double sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM). Amplitude modulation is inefficient in terms of power usage and much of it is wasted. At least two-thirds of the power is concentrated in the carrier signal, which carries no useful information (beyond the fact that a signal is present); the remaining power is split between two identical sidebands, though only one of these is needed since they contain identical information. To increase transmitter efficiency, the carrier can be removed (suppressed) from the AM signal. This produces a reduced-carrier transmission or double-sideband suppressed-carrier (DSBSC) signal. A suppressed-carrier amplitude modulation scheme is three times more power-efficient than traditional DSB-AM. If the carrier is only partially suppressed, a double-sideband reduced-carrier (DSBRC) signal results. DSBSC and DSBRC signals need their carrier to be regenerated (by a beat frequency oscillator, for instance) to be demodulated using conventional techniques. Even greater efficiency is achieved—at the expense of increased transmitter and receiver complexity—by completely suppressing both the carrier and one of the sidebands. This is single-sideband modulation, widely used in amateur radio due to its efficient use of both power and bandwidth. A) DSB-FC In radio communications, a sideband is a band of frequencies higher than or lower than the carrier frequency, containing power as a result of the modulation process. The sidebands consist of all the Fourier components of the modulated signal except the carrier. All forms of modulation produce sidebands. Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave normally results in two mirror-image sidebands. The signal components above the carrier frequency constitute the upper sideband (USB) and those below the carrier frequency constitute the lower sideband (LSB). In conventional AM transmission, the carrier and both sidebands are present, sometimes called double sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM). In some forms of AM the carrier may be removed, producing double sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC). An example is the stereophonic difference (L-R) information transmitted in FM stereo broadcasting on a 38kHz subcarrier. The receiver locally regenerates the subcarrier by doubling a special 19kHz pilot tone, but in other DSB-SC systems the carrier may be regenerated directly from the sidebands by a Costas loop or squaring loop. This is common in digital transmission systems such as BPSK where the signal is continually present. B) SSB-SC Single-sideband modulation (SSB) is a refinement of amplitude modulation that more efficiently uses electrical power and bandwidth. Amplitude modulation produces a modulated output signal that has twice the bandwidth of the original baseband signal. Single-sideband modulation avoids this bandwidth doubling, and the power wasted on a carrier, at the cost of somewhat increased device complexity. C) SUPPERESED CARRIER Reduced-carrier transmission is an amplitude modulation (AM) transmission in which the carrier wave level is reduced to reduce wasted electrical power. Suppressed-carrier transmission is a special case in which the carrier level is reduced below that required for demodulation by a normal receiver. Reduction of the carrier level permits higher power levels in the sidebands than would be possible with conventional AM transmission. Carrier power must be restored by the receiving station to permit demodulation, usually by means of a beat frequency oscillator (BFO). Failure of the BFO to match the original carrier frequency when receiving such a signal will cause a heterodyne. Suppressed carriers are often used for single sideband (SSB) transmissions, such as for amateur radio on shortwave. That system is referred to in full as SSB suppressed carrier (SSBSC) or (SSB-SC). International broadcasters agreed in 1985 to also use SSBSC entirely by 2015, though IBOC and IBAC digital radio (namely Digital Radio Mondiale) seems likely to make this irrelevant. D) VSB A vestigial sideband (in radio communication) is a sideband that has been only partly cut off or suppressed. Television broadcasts (in analog video formats) use this method if the video is transmitted in AM, due to the large bandwidth used. It may also be used in digital transmission, such as the ATSC standardized 8-VSB. The Milgo 4400/48 modem (circa 1967) used vestigial sideband and phase-shift keying to provide 4800-bit/s transmission over a 1600 Hz channel. E) QAM Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals, or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves, using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme. These two waves, usually sinusoids, are out of phase with each other by 90Â ° and are thus called quadrature carriers or quadrature components — hence the name of the scheme. The modulated waves are summed, and the resulting waveform is a combination of both phase-shift keying (PSK) and amplitude-shift keying, or in the analog case of phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation. In the digital QAM case, a finite number of at least two phases, and at least two amplitudes are used. PSK modulators are often designed using the QAM principle, but are not considered as QAM since the amplitude of the modulated carrier signal is constant. 3) FREQUENCY MODULATION frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency (contrast this with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant). In analog applications, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carriers frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. CARSONS RULE A rule of thumb, Carsons rule states that nearly all (~98%) of the power of a frequency-modulated signal lies within a bandwidth of where , as defined above, is the peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center carrier frequency . Normal signal Modulated signal 4) PHASE MODULATION Phase modulation (PM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave. Unlike its more popular counterpart, frequency modulation (FM), PM is not very widely used. This is because it tends to require more complex receiving hardware and there can be ambiguity problems in determining whether, for example, the signal has changed phase by +180Â ° or -180Â °. CARSONS RULE Suppose that the signal to be sent (called the modulating or message signal) is m(t) and the carrier onto which the signal is to be modulated is Annotated: carrier(time) = (carrier amplitude)sin(carrier frequencytime + phase shift) This make the modulated signal This shows how m(t) modulates the phase the greater m(t) is at a point in time, the greater the phase shift of the modulated signal at that point. It can also be viewed as a change of the frequency of the carrier signal, and phase modulation can thus be considered a special case of FM in which the carrier frequency modulation is given by the time derivative of the phase modulation. The spectral behaviour of phase modulation is difficult to derive, but the mathematics reveals that there are two regions of particular interest: For small amplitude signals, PM is similar to amplitude modulation (AM) and exhibits its unfortunate doubling of baseband bandwidth and poor efficiency. For a single large sinusoidal signal, PM is similar to FM, and its bandwidth is approximately, where fM = ωm / 2Ï€ and h is the modulation index defined below. This is also known as Carsons Rule for PM 5) SPACE MODULATION Space modulation is a radio Amplitude Modulation technique used in Instrument Landing Systems that incorporates the use of multiple antennas fed with various radio frequency powers and phases to create different depths of modulation within various volumes of three-dimensional airspace. This modulation method differs from internal modulation methods inside most other radio transmitters in that the phases and powers of the two individual signals mix within airspace, rather than in a modulator.

natural gas and the future of energy Essay -- essays research papers

Natural Gas and the Future of Energy   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Until recently natural gas was considered the dirty brother of oil. Natural gas was often stranded and left undeveloped, often wasting it. Oftentimes natural gas was considered ‘unusable’ and ‘worthless’ compared to oil. But now that the oil is running out a new light is being shown on natural gas. Today natural gas is very much in favor as a clean fossil fuel, especially for electricity generation in industrialized countries. â€Å"Global proven gas reserves are 5501 TcM with around 60 years of production at current utilization rates compared to 40 years for oil,† writes Pradeep Kurup. According to the latest numbers people could be using more gas than oil by 2030. According to Kurup, â€Å"that means an even greater incremental growth in both gas supply and transportation than the industry has seen up to date, with nearly 25% of all natural gas produced now crossing an international border.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Natural gas is created from the anaerobic decay of organic material. You can find it in oil fields and natural gas fields and in most swampy or marshy areas. Natural gas is also generated by animals during digestion. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane which happens to be the lightest of the hydrocarbon molecules. The other components of natural gas consist of heavier hydrocarbon molecules such as ethane, butane, and propane. Hydrogen sulfide and mercury are common contaminants, which must be removed prior to most uses. Natural gas is emerging as the most important energy source for the future because it has an abundance of uses and is found almost anywhere. The abundant supply of natural gas makes it a fine candidate to replace oil as the dominating source of energy. A lot of people who freaked out when word about peak oil surfaced now can find comfort in natural gas. Most people probably don’t realize that natural gas can not only be used as a replacement for gasoline but it can also be used to generate electricity through the use of both gas and steam turbines. A special â€Å"combined cycle mode† has been developed by combining both the gas and the steam turbines. On top of all of the facts I have already posted, natural gas also burns cleaner and thus more efficiently than other fossil fuels creating... ...t maybe this is just al about money like everything else. Maybe the government is hoarding oil and is just saying there is an oil crisis. Lots of questions, but not very many answers. Works Cited 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Energy for the future - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell industry sets out its blueprint. European Commission. 3-17-05 http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/environment  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Swank, J. Grant Jr. Rice: India Upgraded with US RE Future Powers. Mitch News.com. 3-28-05 http://www.michnews.com/artman/publish/article_7474.shtml 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Kurup, Pradeep. Why Natural Gas’s the Future of Energy. Times Internet Network. 3-28-05 http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1062958.cms 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The DaimlerChrysler Website: http://www.daimlerchrysler.com/dccom/0,,0-5-7179-1-460443-1-0-0-0-0-0-8-7165-0-0-0-0-0-0-0,00.html 5. Okoye, Sam Ejike. Cold Fusion, the Unlimited Energy Source: A Myth or Reality? Nigeria World. 3-27-05 http://nigeriaworld.com/articles/2005/mar/271.html

Monday, August 19, 2019

In Favor of Lowering the Drinking Age to 18 :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

Problem: A person should be able to drink legally at the age of eighteen. The law that states that it is legal for a person to drink at the age of twenty-one should be changed so that an eighteen-year-old would be allowed to drink alcohol legally. At 18, you are now an adult and you are expected to act that way. Legally you can vote, get married, buy a lottery ticket, serve in the military and be tried as an adult in the United States court system. These are very important responsibilities that are yours to take care of when you become an adult. â€Å"Good grief†¦let them [also] take the responsibility for the consumption of an adult beverage† (Conway 2000). Solutions: In order to lower the drinking age from 21 to 18, I would: 1)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Find laws in other states and countries as examples. We should look to the European countries as an example to solve our problems in the United States. â€Å"The Europeans teach their children to respect [alcohol] from an early age† (Conway 2000). Theses countries do not have the minimum age of consumption at 21 and this has been proven to make a difference. There is less underage drinking because drinking is part of their culture and lifestyle. It starts in the household with their family and they are taught to drink smart and socially. Social drinking is acceptable; it is a time to have fun while still being in control. New Zealand changed their legal age to 18 in 1989. The slogan â€Å"You’re not just a teen when you’re 18† shows that the New Zealand government is taking the change very seriously and so should the men and women that are of the legal age. Maybe the United States should look around the world to try and solve our own problems. â€Å"Isn’t it ironic that the United States has the highest minimum drinking age and for some strange reason the largest problem with underage consumption† (Toomey & Rosenfeld, 1996)? This statement in itself should be one very good point when considering the change of the legal age to 18. 2)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Alcohol Consumption among minors:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Some might look at this report and argue that at least the amount of alcohol consumption is decreasing among young people since the drinking age has been increased, but what most don’t know is that this has actually been occurring since about 1980. This was long before the states were required to raise the drinking age.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Character Transformations In Dh Lawrences the Blind Man And the Ho :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In DH Lawrence’s stories â€Å"The Blind Man† and â€Å"The Horse Dealer’s Daughter,† the reader watches as characters move from having something missing in their lives, to being truly whole.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Lawrence uses images of darkness to illustrate the emotions of his characters. In â€Å"The Blind Man,† Isabel goes to look for Maurice and when she steps into the stable where he is, â€Å"The darkness seemed to be in a strange swirl of violent life† (Lawrence, 132). The darkness that swirled around Isabel is the darkness in which Maurice lives. The â€Å"Horse Dealer’s Daughter,† is also consumed in darkness, as seen in the description of the dwindling town. The description reads like a disaster report on the five o’clock news: â€Å"across a shallow dip in the country, the small town was clustered like a smoldering ash, a tower, a spire, a heap of low, raw, extinct houses† (Lawrence, 147). To live in a town such as this, a person would become part of the â€Å"smoldering ash,† as Mabel had. When Mabel was with her brothers she â€Å"sat on like one condemned,† (Lawrence, 144) as they discussed her fate. Sh e stayed quiet, working in the house because the family could no longer afford the hired help they once had. They could, in fact, no longer afford the horses that once brought them money. As the family breaks apart, with each sibling going his separate way, Mabel finds herself trapped by her emotions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There is a great tension felt by each of Lawrence’s characters. Mabel, in â€Å"The Horse Dealer’s Daughter,† and Maurice, in â€Å"The Blind Man,† are excellent examples of this tension. Mabel’s tension seems to remain an internal struggle, while Maurice’s affects his wife greatly. After closer examination, it is apparent that Mabel’s internal struggles become evident as she interacts with her brothers. She works in the kitchen and rarely answers them when they speak to her. She has pushed aside any traits she may have possessed and has become like a hired hand, going about her work, not speaking. Maurice’s struggles are shown through his actions also. When Bertie and Isabel are talking after dinner, Maurice excuses himself. He seems uncomfortable in the situation and consequently retires himself to the darkness of the stable. It is not until Bertie goes out to look for him, that Maurice confronts his emotio ns.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The characters of Maurice and Mabel move toward wholeness as they confront the emotions they have previously denied.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Goals and Objectives Essay

â€Å"We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in any society, a life free from violence and fear.† â€Å"We would like to create a world familiar with the smiles of children rather than their tears.† â€Å"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.† — Nelson Mandela The Children’s Defense Fund â€Å"Leave No Child Behind’s† originated in 1973 and is a private, nonprofit organization that is funded, and supported by many different sources such as, donations by individuals, corporations, foundations, and corporate grants. The CDF’s goals and objectives is to make sure that all children, no matter what their race, religion, financial status, and so on, has the opportunity for a fair, healthy, safe, and moral head start in their lives. This will also allow each child to have a successful approach into adulthood by having the help of loving and caring families, organizations, and with the h elp from their communities as well. The Children’s Defense Fund provides for all children of America a independent, strong, and effective voice for those children who are not able to speak, vote, or lobby for themselves. The CDF provides specific attention to our children and families who are not financial sound (poor), our children of minority groups, and our children with disabilities. This organization provides education throughout the nation on the needs of all children, and encourages different measures of prevention before our children get sick, find themselves in trouble, drop out of school, or end up with the breakdown of their families. The objectives of the â€Å"No Child Left Behind Act† consists of closing the gap between children and their achievements, especially when it comes to successful achievements academically. The federal government plays a huge and critical role in achieving all goals. The CDF endorses the accountability system that will helps guarantee that all children, which inclu des children from low-income  households, children of a different race or ethnicity, children with disabilities, and those who lack proficiency in the English language, are given the tools, skills, education, and knowledge so that they will be able to be successful members of society. While there are numerous positions that differ on the many different aspects of the law that is based on issues that have been raised throughout the development of the NCLB. There are constructive and significant corrections to be made in order for the Act to be effective and fair. â€Å"Among these concerns are: over-emphasizing standardized testing, narrowing curriculum and instruction to focus on test preparation rather than richer academic learning; over-identifying schools in need of improvement; using sanctions that do not help improve schools; inappropriately excluding low-scoring children in order to boost test results; and inadequate funding,† (Amanire, 2004). All in all, it is important that the laws need to put more emphasis on taking action, and placing our localities and states accountable for the lack of high test scores, as well as making the necessary changes systematically, that will help increase the achievements of our students. The â€Å"No Child Left Behind† according to William J. Mathis (2003), â€Å"is the manifestation of a society that has lost its sense of community and purpose. Instead of passively complying with a law that further alienates individuals from their society, we must refocus our laws to include the societal and democratic purposes of education†(Mathis, W.J., 2003). It is important that we remind everyone that one of the most important purposes of school and education is to help develop and mold our children into becoming a generation of citizens that practice respectful civic virtues, as well as become a generation who cares and supports the needs of one another, along with helping others when it comes to the health of our towns, communities, cities, states, our nation, and the world in general. This will require the realization that our hope for the future will depend on the unlimited abundance of skills, tools, knowledge, and intelligence lies within our children. It is our responsibility to educate and train our children so that they will be a generation of individuals who will grow, and develop into responsible individuals who will take better care of our world and make it a better place. References Amanire, (2004), Joint Organizational Statement on No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act New America Foundation, (2014), Federal Education Budget Project; No Child Left Behind Overview: http://febp.newamerica.net/background-analysis/no-child-left-behind-overview Short, Kathleen. 2013. â€Å"The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2012† U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Table 5a, http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/p60-247.pdf. Calculations by the Children’s Defense Fund. William J. Mathis, â€Å"No Child Left Behind: Costs and Benefits,† Phi Delta Kappan 84:9, May 2003: 679–687

Friday, August 16, 2019

A Competition I Have Participated In Essay

When I was a little boy/girl, I was interested in impromptu speech competition. I wondered their speaking skill and body movements. They were very smart in my eyes. When they were on the stage, they had no fear and they competed like an ideal student. So, I made my mind that, one day, I will be on that stage and show my welled-trained skill in front of many students. I will be an ideal student and I will persuade my juniors made their mind like I did. It is very difficult to participate in impromptu speech competition. Firstly, student who wants to participate must be welled-known his or her title. And then, he must find useful data and information for his title. And he must compose words how will he say in the competition. He, however, cannot compete only by speaking, he must make body movements to complete his competition. The most important point is that he must not be afraid of stage. People use to fear when they are in front of many people and they have to present something. So, I was preparing for all of that fact. One day, my class teacher made an announcement. It was that there would be an impromptu speech competition. Student who wanted to participate, warmed her. So, I gave her my name in a great pleasure. I had my titles of speech and I started to find useful information as much as I could. I was so nervous to compete. But I was so happy. I trained very hard with my topic. My friends helped me and I presented my topic in front of them and they made suggestions. When I thought I was perfect, I went to my class teacher and presented to her. And then, she made a grammatical wrong correction and made useful suggestion. The competition fell on and many students were crowed in the school compound. They were very interested in the competition and they predicted the winner. The competitors held a piece of paper and practiced with their topic. After a short time, the announcer announced that the competition started. After the headmistress said a few words, each of the competitors started to compete. The competition was very active. After one competitor had finished, the applause was very loud. All of the competitors were welled-trained and very smart. Their presentations were very interesting and everyone cannot help listening to it. At that time, my turn fell on and I went onto the stage. I drew lots and my title was â€Å" how will youth overcome the challenge of knowledge age†. It was my best preparation. When I was presenting my topic, everyone was quiet and listening. I was very graceful in my mind and my dream came true. Although I won the second prize, I was very pleased because it was my first competition and the first prize winner was smarter and more welled-trained than me. Through the passage of time, I participate in many kinds of competitions. But I shall never forget my first competition and I am proud of it.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

A Steady Rain Essay

It’s your typical cop movie, findable on the local channels. Two police officers claim to use their power for the good of the people, but find out how much easier it is to take matters into their own hands. Although we all can get this on our television for free, director Tazewell Thompson takes Keith Huff’s â€Å"A Steady Rain† and turns it into something worth paying for, or did he? The set is completely simple; as a matter of fact I must say it is very uncreative. There are two seats in the front and several are lined up in the back making two single rows. In the far back and sides of the stage, there are blinds with cracks in it as if people have been peeping through them. No art work, not even a coffee table, just chairs and blinds surrounded the stage. It took a while but it hit me, it is an interrogation room. Now, the only thing I predict coming is be a waste of hard earn money and angry people in the audience asking for a refund. But when the two actors came out and started to talk to the audience as if we were a part of the act, it startled me and caught my attention. I’m really in for the night of my life and if you were in my shoes, you’ll be to. This is definitely not your typical play; loyalty, friendship, and lives are at stake. Huff wants us to understand that it does not matter how long or how close you are with someone because in a split second they can betray you. This play did not provide a visual for less creative minds like myself. There was so much talking, storytelling, and current conversations, that I found myself lost through a couple of scenes such as the one where the random Vietnam boy shows up then gets eaten by some cannibalism. Good thing for Denny’s (Aaron Roman Weiner) aggressive voice which always brought my attention back to the play. What’s not to love about Denny? He is an alcoholic racist Italian who takes the law into his own hands leaving his kindergarten best friend, Joey (Kyle Fabel), to cover for him. Joey seems like the nice loyal wise guy who you would assume has his life together, but in all it is just an image. Joey apparently has to live under Denny’s roof because he cannot control his liquor cravings. Denny believes that Joey’s craving is the reason he has yet to have the most valuable thing in life, a family. Because Denny already has what Joey wants, he uses it against him by constantly reminding him who has what and who needs who which leads Joey to secretly wants to live the â€Å"successful† life of Denny. Denny’s vulgar ways makes him seem like he was the main character and as if the world evolve around him. He takes biblical quotes and twists the words around to support his crazy and in his own opinion, logical ideas. â€Å"It’s every man for himself and f–k your neighbor as you expect your neighbor to f–k unto you† (Huff 48). His harsh words are so striking that it leaves the audience in suspense quietly waiting for his next action. While Denny seems to be the one in charge, Joey on the other hand, stumbles over a couple of words. He tries to figure out what would be the best path for him and Denny. He shows his loyalty to his partner in crime by always sticking around and keeping his mouth shut when it comes to the other police officers. It is not always easy for Joey to cover up for Denny who has a particular attitude. He says that he is a family man and family comes first. However, he goes around sleeping with a prostitute, which in return creates conflict with the pimps, his job, and the safety of his family. Not even Saint Joey could save Denny from this situation because now both of their jobs are at stake. Denny will soon learn that all of his actions have consequences in which he is nowhere near prepared for. Are all his lies and his betrayal of the family he claims to protect worth it? Since Joey is living in Denny’s shadow, he believes that he is the one who should be taking care of the family. His loyalty for Denny soon dies when he finds the perfect opportunity to have the family he’s been longing for. Joey is now speaking up for himself by telling Connie, Denny’s wife, all of Denny’s dirt. Joey even starts making moves on his best friend’s, since kindergarten, wife and is making future plans with his new family. Denny was right, it is every man for themselves. In this play, the two characters have their own unique personalities, but as the play progresses there is a lot of role and power switching that occurs during the rainy setting. In Thomas Foster’s, Its More Than Just Rain or Snow, he shows the reason for why during the whole play it is raining. Foster says that rain sets the tone and it could mean potential danger is on its way or is already occurring. Throughout the play we can see destruction amongst friendship and when the play ends, the rain ends as if all the trouble has been washed away. Foster says, â€Å"So if you want a character to cleansed, symbolically, let him walk through the rain to get somewhere† (Foster 77). It is fascinated to see the twist within each character and to observe how each of them develops. By doing this, Keith Huff displays loyalty and friendship, but slams you with betrayal. Huff wants us to take a look at the people who we are closest with because at any given moment they can and there is a great chance that they will betray you. With all the conflicts seen in the play, only one of the brothers will have their happy ending. It’s a shocking twist that I did not even see coming. It’s worth the money spent.